History of American Beauty Industry

30,000 B.C.E. Haircutting tools  have been  located from this era.

3500 B.C.E. Egyptians use eye makeup and cosmetics and have a rich array of beauty and health regimens.

600 B.C.E.  The  nose  (rhinoplasty) becomes the  first part  of the  body  to be surgically altered  for  aesthetic purposes, by the  Indian surgeon Sushruta, and the procedure remains popular today.

296 B.C.E. The  Greek  colony  of Sicily introduces barbering to  Rome;  frequenting a tonsorial becomes a daily social ritual.

100 C.E. Makeup on  the  eyes and  cheeks, as well as the  use  of hair  dyes, are common in the male grooming regimen in Rome.

1597  The  first Western manual of plastic surgery  (De curtorum chirurgia) by Italian  physician Gaspare Tagliacozzi describes the  procedure of using  a flap graft to replace  a missing nose.

1616  Puritan Thomas Tuke warns  of women who  embrace falsehood with a “painted face.”

1770   The  English parliament annuls marriages in which  women have used  “scents, paints, cosmetic washes,  artificial  teeth, false hair, Spanish wool, iron stays, hoops, high-heeled shoes  and bolstered hips” to lure men  into  marriage.

1700s   Tattooing has  become an  established aspect  of the  commercial economies that  have appeared in port  cities across  Europe.

1700s   Wig  making remains a thriving artisanal craft  in  the  American colonies until the wig, which has long been a symbol of status, begins to diminish in popularity during the early national period.

1820s  Mass-produced,  ready-made gentlemen’s clothing is  first  produced, primarily  in New York and along  the eastern seaboard.

1830  Godey’s Lady’s Book is published and  affords  fashionable American women the latest styles from Paris. It includes poetry,  current events  articles,  and  sheet  music, as well as patterns for needlework designs  and clothing.

1851    American women’s suffrage  pioneer Amelia Bloomer popularizes Turkish trouser–like pantaloons for women that  gain popularity in the early 1900s.

1867  Harper’s Bazaar is the first American magazine devoted specifically to fashion. It debuts as a weekly gazette  with a mix of fashion illustrations, colored plates,  and  reports on  what  society’s  elite is wearing.

1875 Parisian Marcel  Grateau perfects the  use  of a curling iron  and popularizes the Marcel  wave.

1879 Procter & Gamble introduces Ivory Soap, intended for both personal  hygiene  and laundry. It is not meant to be a beauty  product and is sold on its purity  and ability to float.

1879 French hairdresser Alexandre Godefroy invents the hot-blast hair dryer.

1886 The Journeymen Barbers International Union of America ( JBIUA) is  established  and   affiliates  with  the  American  Federation  of Labor.

1886  Avon begins  as the  California Perfume Company. The  company would  change its name  to Avon in 1939.

1886  The  fashion magazine Cosmopolitan is first published.

1891  The   first  beauty   school, known as  the  Harper Method Shop, opens in Rochester, New York.

1891   New  Yorker  Samuel O’Reilly  patents the  first  electronic tattoo machine—a modification of Thomas Edison’s electronic engraving machine.

1892   Vogue, the single best-known fashion magazine title in the world, is first produced as a weekly gazette.

1899   Bernarr Adolphus Macfadden (1868–1955) publishes the  magazine  Physical Culture to  promote healthy diets,  regular exercise, and the acquisition of muscle.

1901  Founding of  the  American Safety  Razor  Company, which  will revolutionize men’s  shaving.

1904  Madam C. J. Walker, African American beauty  industry leader, begins to produce her own products and sell them  in person and by mail order. Her  company’s earnings will reach  six figures  by the 1910s.

1906  The  Pure  Food  and  Drug Act of 1906  allows the federal  government  to regulate the cosmetics industry and crack down on faulty marketing practices.

1906  German inventor Charles Nessler patents the  original   electric permanent wave machine.

1907  French chemist Eugene Schuller is credited with developing the first commercial hair  color  product that  is safe for human use. The  company he founds becomes known as L’Oréal.

1908  The  first appearance of the bob can be traced  to Paris and Polishborn Monsieur Antoine (Antek  Cierplikowski) who  cut  the  hair of actress  Eve Lavallière  into  a short cut, which  Antoine dubbed Jeanne  d’Arc.

1908  Beauty  entrepreneur  Elizabeth Arden  opens her  first  salon  on New York’s Fifth Avenue.

1911   The  Triangle Shirt  Waist  Fire in New  York  City is a catalyst  for anti-sweatshop campaigns of the era.

1914  Max Factor  develops  a foundation for actors  that  will not  crack, cake, or crepe  under the  harsh studio lights,  and  soon  afterward becomes a highly sought-after makeup artist  in the film industry. He is credited with coining the term  makeup, based  on the phrase “to make  up one’s face.”

1914  When war erupts in Europe, Helena Rubinstein and her husband immigrate to  New  York  City,  where  she  opens a Fifth  Avenue beauty  salon.

1916   Elizabeth Arden  (1878–1966), known for founding and  operating a chain  of high-end beauty  spas  and  salons, marked by her trademark red door, ranks  first in the nation in prestige skin care sales.

1918   Lulu  Hunt publishes the first popular weight-control book  titled Diet and Health with a Key to the Calories.

1918   Annie   Minnerva Turnbo  Malone, one  of  the  most   successful black female entrepreneurs of the early 20th  century, opens Poro College—an institution that  will include a factory  and  store  for hair  and  cosmetic products, hairdressing school, dormitory, and auditorium, as  well  as  dining and  committee rooms used   for meetings, banquets, lectures, and entertainment.

1921  The  first Miss America  pageant promotes the  tourist commerce of Atlantic  City, New Jersey.

1924   Anna  May Wong, the  first Asian  American movie  star,  becomes internationally known and revered  as a fashion icon.

1924   Modern Beauty Shop—now  known as Modern Salon—a trade  journal, is first published and  reflects  the  dramatic growth of popularly priced  beauty  shops across  the country.

1926   French designer Coco  Chanel’s little black dress  is introduced to the world of fashion.

1926  Proctor &  Gamble introduces  its  first  personal  beauty   soap, Camay, a perfumed bar.

1929   Lastex, a rubber elastic  thread manufactured by Dunlop Rubber Company, replaces  whale bone  in corsets.

1931  The  American Society  of  Plastic  and  Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS) is organized.

1932   The  Revlon Cosmetics Company is founded.

1933  Estée  Lauder, one  of the  most  prominent 20th  century entrepreneurs in the  beauty  industry, begins  a home-based cosmetics business during the Great  Depression.

1933    Animal  testing  for  cosmetic safety  begins  in  the  United States after  an  eyelash-darkening treatment called  Lash  Lure  blinds  a woman.

1938  The  Food  and  Drug Administration (FDA)  passes  the  Federal Food,  Drug, and  Cosmetic Act to provide  safeguards against  the harmful effects of cosmetic use.

1939  The  first  Mr.  America  contest, held  in  Amsterdam, New  York, celebrates the muscular male body.

1944   The  Draize  test  by John  Draize  is the  most  commonly used  test on rabbits to evaluate  eye damage in shampoos, deodorants, laundry detergents, and other soaps.

1944    Seventeen magazine, a beauty  and  lifestyle magazine designed for American teenagers, makes  its debut.

1945   Ebony is first published. This  is a monthly magazine that  chronicles  the   social,  political,   economic, and   cultural activities   of people  of African  descent in the  United States  and  abroad, selfdescribed as one  the  “earliest  and  most  passionate defenders of Black beauty.”

1946   Estée  Lauder and  her  husband  expand the  sales  business to beauty  salons  and hotels, founding the Estée Lauder Company.

1947  French fashion designer Christian Dior  (1905–57), who  began his career  over a decade  earlier, launches his first collection.

1951    Clearasil, a popular brand of acne  medication, is first mass  marketed  to teens.

1952    Proctor & Gamble begins  to manufacture Gleem  toothpaste, followed  by the  even  more  popular Crest  toothpaste, marketed in 1955.

1952    The   merry  widow,  a  foundation garment, is  invented for  and worn by actress  Lana Turner in The Merry Widow. The  film brings a renewed attention to the breast, depicting the ideal mid-century hourglass feminine figure with a cinched waistline.

1953   Hugh Hefner first publishes Playboy magazine, a lifestyles magazine for urban men,  featuring the  nude centerfold of Hollywood actress  Marilyn  Monroe.

1954    The  Johnson Products Company is founded in Chicago and  focuses  initially on the African American male hair care market.

1955   Revlon  reveals  the  power  of television advertising when  it successfully  begins  a lipstick  war against  competition to  secure its domination of the market.

1955   Clairol dominates the hair color market with Shirley Polykoff ’s ad campaign that  rhetorically asks “Does  she or doesn’t she . . . ?”

1957   Gentlemen’s Quarterly (GQ) is launched as a new  publication intended to  whet  the  consumer  appetites of  fashion-conscious men  of style and  provide  a broad  range  of lifestyle advice  to its decidedly prosperous readers.

1957  Ultra  Sheen, a chemical relaxer  designed for  women, helps  to revolutionize the African American female hair care industry.

1958    CoverGirl, a  cosmetics company, is  founded by  the  Noxzema Chemical Company.

1959    An international organization, Beauty Without Cruelty  (BWC), is formed to educate people  about the suffering of animals.

1959    Du  Pont’s  invention of Lycra increases comfort of the girdle.

1962   Newsweek reports that the popularity of the bouffant among teenagers is troubling to parents who think their  daughters are wasting too much time rolling  and combing their  hair.

1963   Weight Watchers, one  of  the  best-known dieting   programs,  is launched.

1963    Mary Kay Cosmetics, a direct  sales company known for its conservative  corporate culture and  the  pink  Cadillac,  is launched, specializing in beauty  products, especially  skin care and makeup.

1963     British  Hairdresser Vidal Sassoon rises to celebrity  fame with his geometric bob cut.

1965    Mary Quant introduces the miniskirt at her London clothes shop, Bazaar.

1968   Feminists protest the  Miss  America  Beauty  Pageant by filling a trash  can  with  bras,  makeup, curlers, and  other popular beauty products of the era.

1974    Fashion designer Calvin  Klein prints his logo on  t-shirts for the use and  amusement of staffers  at his company. The  logo is soon in hot  demand and ushers in the era of designer labels.

1976   Anita   Roddick  founds  an   earth-,  animal-, and   community friendly  cosmetic and  skin  care  business, The   Body  Shop, in Great  Britain.

1976   Farah  Fawcett  first appears in Charlie’s Angels, a popular television detective  series. Her feather-blown hairstyle and her iconic swimsuit poster make  her an international fashion sensation.

1978     Environmentalist Horst Rechelbacher, who wanted to create  personal care products using ingredients found in nature, establishes Aveda.

1981    Fifteen-year-old model/actress Brooke  Shields  appears in a provocative Calvin Klein jeans commercial that defines the designer’s edgy approach to advertising.

1983   The   Jenny  Craig  program, a  popular system   that   focuses   on weight loss, weight management, and nutrition, is marketed.

1983    Jockey International revolutionizes men’s  underwear sales by relying on  revealing  photographs of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Jim Palmer.

1984    In the spirit of laissez faire, the Reagan administration deregulates advertising on children’s television.

1987    Men’s Health magazine is launched, providing male  readers with how-to advice for achieving the perfectly  sculpted body.

1988     Rogaine, a product designed to encourage hair growth, especially for men,  is mass marketed.

1990     The  FDA  bans  27  unsafe or  ineffective  ingredients commonly found in dandruff shampoos.

1990s     Korean and  Vietnamese artisans and  entrepreneurs make  popularly priced  pedicures and  manicures the  latest  rage. By the  end of the decade, the number of nail techs  has tripled  and nail salons are deemed one  of the  fastest-growing industries in the  United States.

1991    The  International SPA Association (ISPA) is the first professional organization to  represent the  industry and  an  indication of the newest  trends in the beauty  business.

1991   Naomi Wolf publishes The Beauty Myth,  in which  she argues  that the  notion that  beauty  equals  liberation is false and  constructed by the beauty  industry as a marketing tool.

1994   British cultural critic Mark  Simpson coins  the term  metrosexual in an article  for the Independent.

1994     The J. Sisters Salon in New York City, a salon owned by seven Brazilian sisters,  first offers the Brazilian wax in the United States.

1995   Maxim,  a monthly men’s  magazine, is launched. It features articles  about men’s  health, fashion, sports, and  consumer goods, along  with other male activities and men’s  culture.

1996   A scandal involving  talk  show  host  Kathy  Lee  Gifford  and  her brand of  sportswear  exclusively   sold   by  Walmart  reflects   renewed  media interest in sweatshop labor conditions at home and abroad.

1996   The  Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (CCIC), an  agglomeration of citizen  groups, including the  Humane Society  of the  United States,  develops  the  Corporate Standard of Compassion for Animals  in an  effort  to  create  an  international non–animal testing  standard.

2002   Extreme Makeover, a reality TV makeover program, debuts on ABC and  features individuals who  consider themselves ugly submitting videotapes that detail their  facial and bodily flaws in hopes of being  flown to Hollywood for an extensive  makeover. A wave of similarly themed reality shows  soon  follows.

2002    The  U.S. FDA approves the use of Botox, a derivative  of the botulinum bacterium, an  increasingly popular cosmetic treatment that  reduces wrinkles by paralyzing  the underlying facial muscles responsible for wrinkles around the forehead and eyes.

2002    Abercrombie &  Fitch  face ridicule for  marketing thong underwear to tweens.

2004    The  U.S.  Department of Agriculture begins  regulating organic personal care products; the first organic standard specifically targeting  the beauty  and personal care industry emerges in 2008.

2006   Uruguayan model  Luisel  Ramos  dies  of a heart  attack  brought on by anorexia nervosa during a fashion show; just a few months later, anorexia also claims the life of Brazilian model Ana Carolina Reston.

2006   The  National Latino Cosmetology Association, a nonprofit organization founded by CEO  Julie Zepeda, is established.

2008  The  FDA  Globalization Act  is established to  provide  the  FDA with the authority to regulate food, cosmetics, drugs, and medical devices in a global marketplace.

2009   The  European Union bans  all animal  testing  for cosmetics and the sale of animal-tested cosmetics.

2009   First Lady and  fashion icon,  Michelle Obama, is featured on the cover of Vogue.

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